23 skill untuk toefl

Some sentence in English have just one subject and verb, and it is very important, to find the subject and verb in these sentence. In some sentence it is easy to find subject and verb.
Skill 1 : Pastikan kalimat tersebut memiliki subjek dan frase
Dalam kalimat bahasa inggris harus memiliki subjek atau frase dan biasanya yang hilang dalam pertanyaan toefl adalah subjek atau frase atau keduannya yang harus dilengkapi.
A sentence in English must have at least one subject and one verb.

Skill 2 : hati hati dengan penempatan objek dalam tempatnya
Objek dalam tempat dapat berupa benda manusia maupun hewan diletakkan setelah penunjukan tempat yang termasuk kedalamnya petunjuk tempat adalah in, at, of, to, by, behind, on and so on. Objek dalam letak dapat membingungkan seseorang ketika mengerjakan kosakata dalam test toefl karena dapat menjadi kesalahan untuk subjek dalam sebuah kalimat
OBJECT OF PREPOSITIONS
A preposition is followed by a noun or pronoun that is called an object of the preposition. If a word is an object of a preposition, it is not the subject.

Skill 3 : perhatikan kata pengganti
Kata pengganti \ kata lain dapat membingungkan ketike test toefl appositive dapat menjadi satu kesalahan untuk subjek dalam suatu kalimat. Appositive adalah benda hidup ada sebelum atau sesudah benda hidup yang memiliki persamaan dalam artinya atau maksudnya.
The following chart outlines the key information that you should remember abaut appositives:
APPOSITIVES
An appositive is a noun that comes before or after another noun and is generally set of from the noun with commas. If a word is an appositive, it is not the subject. The following appositive structure are both possible in English :
S APP V
Tom, a really good mechanic, is fixing the car
APP S V
A really good mechanic, Tom is fixing the car

Skill 4:perhatikan kalimat present participle (yang akan datang).
Present participle menggunakan akhiran –ing pada setiap frasenya (talk=talking, play=playing) fungsi kalimat present participle ada dua yaitu: berfungsi sebagai verb, berfungsi sebagai kalimat aktif.
PRESENT PARTICIPLE
A present participle is the –ing form the verb. The present participle can be (1) part of the verb or (2) an adjective. It is part of the verb when it is accompanied by some form of the verb be. It is can adjective when it is not accompanied by some form of the verb be.
The boy is standing in the corner.
The boy standing in the corner was naughty.

Skill 5: perhatikan kalimat past participle
Past participle merupakan akhiran –ed (purchased) kalimat ini juga memiliki dua fungsi: kalimat yang termasuk dalam fungsi verb harus diikuti have atau be, kalimat yang termasuk dalam fungsi kalimat aktif tidak harus diikuti have atau be tetapi menggunakan verb 3 untuk frasenya.
PAST PARTICIPLE
A past participleoften ends in –ed, but there are also many irregular past participles. For many verbs, the simple past and the past participleare the same and can be easilyconfused. The –ed form of the verb can be (1) the simple past, (2) the past participle of a verb, or(3) an adjective.
She painted this picture
She has painted this picture.
The picture painted by Karen is now in museum.

Skill 6: menggunakan kalimat penghubung dengan benar
Ketika kamu memiliki dua klausa dalam kalimat bahasa inggris, kamu juga harus mengetahui kata penghubung yang tepat. Kata yang sering digunakan dalam menyambungkan suatu kalimat adalah and, but, or, so, yet sebelum klausa kedua.
COORDINATE CONNECTORS
And but or so yet ,(comma)
S V, coordinate connector S V
She laughed, but she wanted to cry

Skill 7: menggunakan kata keterangan dan kata penghubung sebab
Kalimat dengan kata keterangan harus memiliki dua pola
ADVERB TIME AND CAUSE CONNECTORS
Time cause

After as soon as once when as now that
As before since whenever because since
As long as by the time until while inasmuch as

S V adverb connector S V
Teresa went inside because it was raining.
Adverb connector S V, S V
Because it was raining, Teresa went inside.

Skill 8: use other adverb connectors correctly
OTHER ADVERB CONNECTORS
CONDITION CONTRAST MANNER PLACE

If although as where
In case even though in that wherever
Provided though
Providing while
Unless whereas
Whether
S V adverb connector S V
Bob went to school even though he felt sick.
Adverb connector S V, S V
Even though Bob felt sick, he went to school.
NOTE: a comma is often used in the middle of the sentence with a contrast connector.
The smith family arrived at 2:00, while the jones family arrived an hour later

Skill 9 : use noun clause connectors correctly
NOUN CLAUSE CONNECTORS
-What,when,where,why,how -whatever,whenever -whether,if -that
Noun clause as object
S V noun connector S V
I know what you did
Noun clause as subject
noun connector S V V
what you did was wrong

Skill 10 : use noun clause connector\subjects correctly
NOUN CLAUSE CONNECTOR\SUBJECTS
Who what which whoever whatever whichever
Noun clause as object
S V noun connector V
I know what happened
Noun clause as object
noun connector V V
what happened was great

Skill 11 : use adjective clause connectors correctly
ADJECTIVE CLAUSE CONNECTORS
Whom which that
(for people) (for things) (for people or things)

S V adjective connector S V
I liked the book which you recommended
S adjective connector S V V
The book which you recommended was interesting
Skill 12 : use adjective clause connector\subjects correctly
ADJECTIVE CLAUSE CONNECTORS\SUBJECTS
Who which that
(for people) (for things) (for people or things)

S V adjective connector\subject V
She need a secretary who types fast
S adjective connector\subject V V
A secretary who types fast invaluable

Skill 13 : use reduce clause adjective clause correctly
REDUCE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
With a be-verb in the (ADJECTIVE CONNECTOR\SUBJECT) (BE)
Adjective clause (who,which,that)
With no be-verb in the (ADJECTIVE CONNECTOR\SUBJECT) (VERB+ING)
Adjective clause (who,which,that)
-To reduce an adjective clause, omit the adjective clause connector\subject and the be-verb
-if there is no be-verb

Skill 14: mengurangi kata keterangan dengan anak kalimat
Anak kalimat juga dapat muncul didalam bentuk mengurangi. Untuk menguranginya kata keterangan menggunakan kata penghubung tetapi subjek dan be-verb ditinggal
REDUCED ADVERB CLAUSE
With a be-verb in (adverb connector) (subject) (be)
The adverb clause
With no be-verb in (adverb connector) (subject) (verb+ing)
The adverb clause
Time condition Contrast Place Manner

Reduces in active after if although
Before unless though
Since whether
While
Reduces in passive once if although where as
Until unless though wherever
When whether
Whenever
To reduce an adverb clause, omit the subject and the br-verb from the adverb clause
If there no be-verb, then omit the subject and change the verb to the –ing form

Skill 15:
Itu salah satu masalah tentang kapan untuk membalikkan subjek dan kata kerja sebelum kata Tanya seperti what, when, where, why and how. Kata tersebut dapat mempunyai dua fungsi penting dalam suatu kalimat. Pertama mereka dapat memperkenalkan pertanyaan didalam bentuk subjek dan kata kerja itu dapat dibalik. Yang kedua memberitahukan bahwa subjek dan frase menunjukan kata Tanya what, when, where dan tidak dapat dibalik dalam bentuk ini.

Inverted subject and verbs with question words
Who what when where why how
When the question word introduces a question, the subject and verb are inverted.
Question word V S ?
What are they?
When the question word connects two clauses, the subject and verb that follow are not inverted.
S V question word S V
I know what they are
Skill 16: membalikkan subjek dan kata kerja dengan ekspresi tempat
Sebelim ekspresi membalikkan tempat subjek dan kaat kerja suatu waktu dapat dibalik, dalam inggris ini dapat terjadi dengan satu kata mengekspresikan tempat seperti here, there, or nowhere.

Inverted subject and verbs with place expressions
When a place expression at the front of the sentence is necessary to complete the sentence, the subject and verb that follow are inverted
Place necessary V S
In the classroom were some old desk
When a place expression at the front of the sentence contains extra information that is not needed to complete the sentence, the subject and verb that follow are not inverted
Place(extra) S V
In the classroom, I studied very hard

Skill 17: membalikkan subjek dan kata kerja dengan kalimat negative
Subjek dan kata kerja juga dapat dibalik tentu sebelum kalimat negative dan berhubungan dengan ekspresi. Dimana ekspresi negative seperti no, not, or never datang diawal kalimat, subjek dan kata kerja dapat dibalik.

Inverted subject and verb with negatives
No not never neither nor
Barely hardly only rarely scarcely seldom
When a negative expression appears in front of a subject and verb (at the beginning of a sentence or in the middle of a sentence) the subject and verb are inverted.
Negative expression V S
Rarely were they so happy.

Skill18: membalikkan subjek dan kata kerja dengan kondisional
Tentu dalam kondisional stuktur, subjek dan kata kerja tentu saja boleh dibalik, itu dapat terjadi apabila kapan kata pembantu kata kerja didalamkondisional anak kalimat had, should, or were dan kondisional penghubung if juga termasuk.
Inverted subject and verbs with conditionals
Had should were
When the verb in the conditional clause is had should or were it is possible to omit of invert the subject and verb.
(omitted if) V S
Were he here, he would help.
It is also possible to keep if, then the subject and verb are not inverted.
If S V
If he were here, he would help.

Skill19 : membalikkan subjek dan kata kerja dengan persamaan
Membalikkan subjek dan kata kerja boleh terjadi juga sebelum persamaan. Pembalikkan subjek dan kata kerja sebelum persamaan yang ditentukan menuntut lebih dan struktur lebih formal.
Inverted subject and verb with comparisons
The subject and verb may invert after a comparison. The following structures are both possible
S V comparison S V
We were more prepared than the other performers were
S V comparison V S
We were more prepared than were the other performers

Skill 20: membuat kata kerja persetujuan sebelumpreposional phrases
Suatu waktu kalimat preposisi dapat dating diantara subjek dan kata kerja. Jika kata kerja preposional adalah singular dan subjek adalah plural, atau jika kata kerja preposional plural dan subjek singular, itu dapat membingungkan subjek dan kata kerja persetujuan.
Subject verb agreement with prepositional pharases
S (prepositional phrases) V
Whwn a prepositional phrase comes betweeen the subject and the verb, be sure that the verb agrees with the subject.

Skill 21: membuat kata kerja sebelum ekspresi of jumlah
Particular persetujuan masalah terjadi pada kapan subjek pada jumlah ekspresi seperti dalam all, must, or some, tertunjuk oleh preposisi of. Dalam situasi ini subjek (all, must, some) dapat singular atau plural, tergantung apa yang dituju oleh preposisi of jumlah.
membuat kata kerja sebelum ekspresi of jumlah
All
Most of the (object) V
Some
Half
Whwn an expression of quantity is the subject, the verb agrees with the object

Skill 22: membuat terbalik kata kerja persetujuan
Kita dapat melihat sesekali didalam inggris subjek datang s4ebelum kata kerja. Itu dapat terjadi sebelum kalimat tanya(15) sebelum ekspresi tempat(16) sebelum kalimat negative(17) sebelum kondisional (18) dan sebelum kalimat persamaan(19) . kapan subjek dan kata kerja dibalik itu sangat sulit untuk menempatinya dan oleh sebab itu dapat menjadi masalah untuk membuat persetujuan.
membuat terbalik subjek\kata kerja persetujuan
Question
Negative
Place
Condition (no if)
Comparison
After question words, negative expression, place expression, conditions without if, and comparison, the verb aggres with the subject, which may be after the verb

Skill 23: membuat kata kerja persetujuan sebelum kata tertentu
Tentu didalam inggris kata selalu berkenaan denagn tata bahasa inggris singular meskipun sama, mereka dapat mempunyai arti plural.

membuat kata kerja persetujuan sebelum kata tertentu
These words or expression are grammatically singular so they take singular verbs:
Anybody everybody nobody somebody each (+ noun)
Anyone everyone no one someone every (+noun)
Anything everything nothing something

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